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Areas of Expertise - Manufactured (Synthetic) Gas Analysis


Manufactured (Synthetic) Gas Analysis:

Several classes of gaseous fuels are commercially produced from solid or liquid fuels. Common examples include:

Reformed (Catalytic) Gas: A "tailored" gaseous fuel of high Btu content produced by fluidized or catalytic bed treatment of hydrocarbon gases at a refinery. The composition of reformed gas varies, but usually consists of Hydrogen (11 - 22%), Nitrogen (7 - 11%), Methane (30 - 40%), Ethane (13 - 16%), Ethylene (13 - 16%), Propane (0.5 - 2%), Propylene (2.5 - 12%), lower amounts (0.1 - 2%) of other light C4 - C6 alkanes/A
alkenes/dienes (i.e. cis/trans butadienes), Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide. Such gases can be mixed with processed natural gas to increase Btu content.
Refinery Gas: Gases generated as by-products during the refining of crude petroleum. The composition of these gases varies with the crude source and can contain a significant Hydrogen and/or sulfur content (i.e. Hydrogen Sulfide), light A
alkanes/alkenes such as Methane, Ethane, Ethylene, Propanes, Propylene, Butanes, Butylenes, Dibutylenes, Pentanes, Pentenes, Hexanes, low levels of Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide and trace Oxygen.
Coke Oven (Coal) Gas: A gas mixture produced during coal carbonization (inert gases are L.T. 50%). The typical composition is: Hydrogen (45 – 54%), Methane (28 - 34%), Carbon Monoxide (6 – 7%).
Producer Gas: A low Btu gas mixture produced by the incomplete combustion of coal or coke in an air or air/steam based gas producer unit (inert gases are G.T. 50%). The typical composition is Hydrogen (5 - 10%), Carbon Monoxide (20 - 35%), Nitrogen (55 - 65%). It is primarily used by the industry producing it.
Water Gas (Blue gas): A low Btu gas mixture produced from a reaction of steam with coke (inert gases L.T. 50%). The typical composition is: Hydrogen (45 - 50%), Carbon Monoxide (40 - 50%), Carbon Dioxide (3 - 7%), Nitrogen (4 - 5%).
Oil Gas: A high Btu gas mixture (natural gas substitute) produced from the thermal cracking of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.
Blast Furnace Gas: A low Btu gas mixture produced from the reduction of iron-ore in a blast furnace.
Acetylene: (Commonly manufactured by reaction of calcium carbide with water). Acetylene is a reactive gas that is typically dissolved in acetone for safety purposes. Approximately 85% of all acetylene produced is used for chemical synthesis. Fuel applications include oxy-acetylene cutting/welding, heat treating and spectrometric instrumentation (AAS). Trace impurities common to acetylene include: phosphine, arsine, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, acetone vapor and air.